Tuesday, 15 August 2017

Paula's progress (pt 1 - T3W4)

Late last term, I had a student join my classroom. 
When he first arrived, he didn't speak English. Or wouldn't...

It was the end of the term, I was exhausted, and I really didn't know what to do with this kid.
I started this term knowing I would have to do more for Paula. 
But considering I couldn't even communicate with him, I was a bit lost...

Slowly, I began to build a relationship with Paula (albeit through a lot of sign language and translations from my other Tongan students). 

I came to realise this kid is very bright.
Yes, he might not understand what is going on sometimes and stare at me confused on a daily basis, but he knew a lot more than he let on. 
As he grew more comfortable in the classroom, he began singing (in English, with confidence), making friends with other boys, participating in games, even taking his turn to do maths on the whiteboard in front of everyone. 

He is very confident in maths, and has been taught how to use algorithm. 
I have decided to stick with that. It's not worth going back and teaching him a million number strategies when he doesn't have enough English to comprehend my explanations. He can just stick to algorithm. He is learning to skip count and memorising his times tables along with his maths group. He makes me laugh, as I ask him 2x8=?, and he skip counts in 2's in Tongan, then sits and thinks about what the English word for 16 is.  But.... he knows it. 

I've began teaching him some addition strategies (e.g. tidy numbers), but I think he will always prefer algorithm. 

For his reading and writing, I tried getting him to do both of these in Tongan with the help of Tongan speaking students. Typically, it is better to get get ELLs (English Language Learners) to use their first language as a base, then convert to English later on. It seemed that Paula wasn't confident in Tongan, for example he refused to read aloud in Tongan. If students are not strong in their first language, it is incredibly difficult to build onto it. So, I have started teaching him to read and write in English. 

He practices high frequency words with Bob almost everyday. 

Today, I took him to our resource room and started at the lowest level of books. 
Now, I have never taught below year 3 (7 years old). I have no idea how to teach somebody to read for the first time. I admit, I have no idea what I am doing.
Luckily for me, my friend and colleague Lucina was there as well, and helped me to decide what level to get Paula on, and she was able to recommend good books at his level. Thank you Lucina! 

She modelled how she introduces new books to her students (she teaches year 1 and 2, so actually uses this level of books and knows what she is talking about) which will be super helpful for me.

Tonight I made up this Google Drawing, with audio files linked to the books so he can listen to the stories as he reads them. 
I hope with time, I can help Paula to learn to read and write in English.
He is growing in confidence everyday, and I want him to feel safe enough to take risks. 
So far, nobody in my class has seen Paula as 'dumb' or anything similar, but recognise that he is smart in Tongan, but needs to learn to speak English. Hence, they are happy to help him or translate for me. 

Lucina and I have talked about me observing her further, and hopefully one day her observing me to give me feedback and feedforward.

Anne's observation (T3W4)

Today Anne visited me again to observe me, and it was great to catch up with her again. 

As always, Anne finds the good in any situation. I was pleased to see these comments in her feedback. 

"It was lovely to see child led learning in action, with you the ringmaster being able to check in with each group and reset or suggest ideas to help with the play. They were all involved and very excited by the play they were working on. Loved the littlest girl with her clipboard writing frantically like a director.


The second time you allowed them to remake the groups with whom you work well with. By the time you stop cutting the next task into strips they were to be in sensible groups or you would change them. Key Competencies of independence and self regulation evident with most of the students, in the way you give responsibility back to the students. Most of the students respond well to this but you do have some who you are doing a lot of work with. Good on you!"

"There is a real sense of teamwork and community in the room, which you have developed Ashley.  After all the hard work of the first 2 terms you are very relaxed with them and inclusive and aware of each individual in the class. "

"The room is an example of free form mobility, where spaces are created and recreated as needed, for whatever you are teaching. In this way you make the most of the limited space you have to full advantage. It was also great to see the enthusiasm evident as the students came in. "

To have a student-led, flexible classroom has been a focus of mine this term and I felt proud that it was so evident.

Anne also pointed out that I could have pushed my students further in their role plays, which is absolutely true and I will try to implement her feedback throughout this week and beyond, such as building up more background story for characters, trying out alternate endings, and pushing them to explain how adding depth to their play could add detail to their writing.

"It was evident for you that development of character and plot still needs working on from the unknown. It is always hard to work from the unknown without any background of experiences to draw from. So the building up of likely scenes, characters, plots, ideas and stories are ongoing. If there had been more time you would have also gone deeper into character and plot development and complex ideas."

"Don’t pass up opportunities to deepen the discourse and the effect the role plays had and what could make them stronger next time. How will the role plays help us to be more descriptive in our writing?"

I always look forward to Anne's visits, as no matter what you are doing she always finds something positive to say about it. Her feedforward is honest, realistic and fair.
She reminded me that I need to update my PTC documents, as one of the beginning teachers from my school will get audited for registration. I will definitely need to work on that!

Saturday, 12 August 2017

GEG Student Summit

Yesterday was the Google Educator Groups [GEG] Student Summit, held at Ormiston Primary School.

Essentially, it was an education conference, where students presented to students, and the adults were there as legal obligations. How cool is that? The power shifts, and students are the teachers. 

I had organised to take 20 students (and 2 other adults) to this event from my school. The tickets were free, and the total cost of transport was $40.


 The kids getting connected to Wi-Fi before the first keynote started.

A major highlight from the day was our students getting the opportunity to try out new technology (or otherwise, technology that we don't have at our school).
Such as Scratch, Makey-Makeys and IQube.


From a teachers perspective, it blew me away how much the presenters (students from various schools) could do, without any adult help.

This kid, from Ormiston Primary, managed 10+ people on his own, (note - all older/larger than himself) as well as lugging around 3x 20L containers of his technology, demonstrating it and ensuring nobody broke/stole anything. He was literally hip height on me. I was very impressed. He had no teacher with him. 

As it was our first time attending this conference, we had no idea what to expect. 
In one way. I was comforted in that we are doing some of the things that were being presented about (e.g. coding, using scratch). 

In other ways, it gave me some things to think about for our students.. 
What other kinds of experiences (both real and digital) could we organise for our students? 
Do they need all these things? Some of the tech, I couldn't see the educational purpose for it. Some were merely toys to me.
What other opportunities, such as attending this event, exist that we are not making the most of? 
How can I prepare the students to be presenters with such confidence, so they could present next time? (Which bless them, they have already asked to do).
If we go again, should we take less children? Only older students? (Based of observations of how many/the age of students attending from other schools). 

I have already asked the deputy principal and senior syndicate leader if I could organise a mini-conference sort of thing, where the students who attended the conference can teach the kids who didn't, about what they learnt. 
I'm thinking it could be a stepping stone, to a regular event. 
Students can teach other students, in the same way teachers do for toolkits, something they know. It could be keyboard shortcuts, how to bookmark internet pages, how to check your emails properly, how to use labels on blogs, how to use Google Forms to make a quiz, how to create Kahoots, how to edit movies on I-movie, the list goes on and on. 
Sometimes I forget how much my kids know and can do. When I write it like that, they seem like digital experts. 

I would love to do this as a stepping stone, to students presenting at this conference next year or whenever it is held next. It would help them gain confidence, respect for each other as leaders and learning leaders, and (hopefully) build empathy for how hard it is to get up and present. 
Maybe speeches in year 7/8 wouldn't be so scary...

I think it was definitely worth going on this event and worth all my organisation. 
I would absolutely do it again.

Tuesday, 8 August 2017

PD: Helping kids who have experienced trauma

This afternoon we had a voluntary staff meeting with a psychologist, Chris, who talked about how we can help students who have experienced severe trauma. Our school currently has a student who is working with Chris, and the school thought we could all learn a lot about how to deal with troubled children in the future.

Key facts..
More than 94% of people in prison have been abused/neglected/experienced trauma.
Approx 1 in 10 young people is currently suffering abuse/neglect/trauma.

How are personalities formed?
How do kids learn to trust and help themselves?
What is trauma?
How do traumatic experiences effect kids?
What can we do to help?
Image result for biopsychosocial model

All behaviour has meaning.

Nearly 60% of child abuse is neglect, but these children are not often picked up for CYFS etc because neglect is hard to prove.

Attachment stylesImage result for attachment styles

MOST children have secure attachments.

Avoidant attached - can happen when parents have mental illness, addiction problems or have their own stresses but have not developed ways to cope with these. Child learns that their needs will not always be met.

Children who have experienced trauma might think..

I am...
not worth keeping

Others are..
lying to me
better/smarter/cooler than me

The world is...
out to get me

What glasses is this kid wearing? How can I help change those glasses?
(How do they see the world, through a lense of poverty/guilty/fear/etc.)
Image result for healthy vs trauma brain scan


Monday, 7 August 2017

Maths reflection - T3W2

This week for maths, myself and my colleague and friend ran workshops between our two classes.

Students from my class, Room 7, and the other class, Room 8, could sign up to the workshops run by either of the teachers (not necessarily their own teacher).

Students signed up to workshops on this document and got to choose themselves which they wanted to attend. In my opinion, 99% of the students went to the one their teacher would have put them in anyway, as the workshop was what they needed to learn at their specific level.
To me, this showed that the students were able to reflect on what they knew, and what they needed to know in order to move up levels/move forwards. This is a huge achievement for our students.

The one child who wasn't where they should have been got moved anyway, and agreed immediately that they already knew how to do the work and should've signed up to the more difficult workshop in the first place.

My lessons were quite difficult, aimed at the higher end students (stage E6 and above). As we only did one hour sessions, I gave out homework to reinforce the ideas learnt throughout that lesson.

Mondays lesson was great.  I regret not videoing it.
I had about 5 of my own students who already learnt about decimals (but had chosen to come anyway, as they felt they had forgotten it) and the rest were from Room 8, and had never done decimals before. I started the lesson by saying 'I am going to go really fast, and if you're not listening you are going to miss it'. That was the only 'behavioury' thing I had to say in the whole hour. The kids were so engaged with using the decimats, showing decimal numbers (the same teaching concept as here), they began to use the language correctly and all was well. We even began adding decimals!

At the beginning of Tuesdays lesson, we marked Mondays homework which was a worksheet where students had to add two decimal numbers together. We marked this together, with students coming to write their answers up on the board to show the rest of the class. I found this way of marking more helpful, as I can watch their process and ask questions while they are working, instead of just giving them a red cross and them and I both not knowing where they went wrong. That was fine, and we moved onto subtracting decimals. We used materials again, as this really helps build the understanding of exchanging tenths and hundredths. I sent them away with a subtraction worksheet for homework, but also let the students from both classes use the materials to help them solve the worksheet. I find that teaching, and doing, subtraction in decimals is a lot harder than adding them.

Wednesday I taught my group how to convert between decimals, percentages and fractions. Again, this is a huge topic that I tried to cover in very little time. I acknowledge that each of these lessons will need revisiting regularly to ensure the kids understand it properly. A one off lesson is not enough. One thing I think was good about Wednesdays lesson was giving the kids 'tricks' and making them circle, highlight and draw arrows around these tricks.
By trick, I more mean the 'rule', but it seems more enticing to tell kids there is an easy trick to it.
For example, when converting between fractions and percentages, you need to make it so the denominator is 100, then the numerator will be the percent number.

7/10 is the fraction.  7x10   =70
                                 10x10=100   so the percent number is 70%.

The other trick/rule here is that what you do to the bottom you must to do the top, hence multiplying by the same number.

On Thursday we had lessons planned, but these didn't happen for various reasons. Which means I swapped Tuesday and Thursday's lessons, and never taught rounding decimals.

Fridays lesson went GREAT.
We stayed in our own classes, and presented our learning in student clinics (watch the first one for an example of what student clinics are if you are unfamiliar with them).

I was SOOO impressed with each of my kids. You can tell by what they choose to show, which workshops they attended. I was delighted to see my kids who went to the other teachers workshops had learnt so much, and had grasped concepts they had struggled with under my teaching.
There was a group of low-achieving boys who could do a strategy they were previously unable to do, I was so proud. They have learnt so much in one week.

Reflection and next steps
I definitely think the kids liked being able to choose what they wanted to learn about, and I liked them being able to choose as well. I found they were more engaged because they wanted to be there, instead of being forced to be there. Although I covered a lot in a short time, and will absolutely need to revisit those concepts, it was awesome exposure for those who were new to it and good practice who had learnt it previously. I was so proud of my kids when they presented their clinics, as they could ask helpful questions, they were patient and kind, didn't mock each other, and kept asking to do more/harder problems to show how much they had really learnt.

We will be doing maths this way again next week, focusing more on multiplication strategies. We have decided to only do one learning intention each teacher each session, as when we had two learning intentions in the same session, we smooshed them together anyway.

The students confidence grows immensely when they feel ownership over their learning (choice).
I also think that for my lower-ability students, it was beneficial for them to be with peers who are closer to their level, rather than being in a class where they know they are lower than everyone else. Then when those kids in particular presented their clinics, the 'smart' kids were really impressed that they could do 'hard stuff' now. (Forgive my use of kid speak).

Monday, 31 July 2017

PD: 3d printer training with RICOH

Monday 31st July 2017

What applications are there for 3d printing?
- making replacement parts for toys etc.
- human application: robotics and prosthetic

How does it work?
- what materials does it use? (we are using PLA)
- people are starting to use composite materials (PLA/iron, PLA/

- you can scan objects to get a digital image (different machine than we have...)
- get designs from online (thingyverse)
- design it yourself

When you have your STL file...
- go into Makerbot
- change settings - infill, resolution, shells, raft, support

Settings for makerbot + (the model we have)
build volume - 10.1Lx 12.6Wx 12.6H cm
Material - PLA
Spool size - 0.2kg
Smart extruder +
Connectivity - USB and Wi-Fi

Key vocabulary
- print in place
- STL (the format you save your digital format in) - stereolithography
- raft

Wednesday, 26 July 2017

Kicking off Term 3!

I didn't get much of a break during the school holidays, so felt ill prepared to head back into school. I knew it would all be fine once I got back into things, and boy has it been fine. 

Our inquiry topic this term is 'leisure and entertainment', which is awesome. Its broad enough that you can take it where you/your class wants, and cool enough to keep the kids interested no matter where it goes. I was really excited about this topic. 

For the first couple weeks of school, I really wanted my students to do a history focus on the 'leisure and recreation'. I myself love learning about history, and wanted to pass this onto my kids. I wanted them to understand the bigger picture of leisure and entertainment 

Why do we even have leisure time? 
Have we always had it? 
What activities do people do? 
Does what we do for leisure activities change over time? 
What influences these changes? 
What activities have endured throughout history, and why have they been so successful? 
How can society shape what is considered fun?

Hence, we launched our inquiry on Monday morning by reading a non-fiction text about the beginning of the 'entertainment industries' in the 20th century. The text itself was a little repetitive, but the kids didn't seem to notice or care. 

Even with this one reading, we began exploring what the word century means, what BC/AD are (and how time goes backwards, what?!), the influence of laws on people and their work, how not having paid work leave affected people (i.e. they never took holidays because they couldn't afford it), what a normal 'working' week was considered to be and how this changed over time, when different entertainment tools (i.e. radio, TV, commercial flight for travel) were invented and how much they cost at the time and so much more. 

We had AMAZING discussions. 

I mentioned off-hand to them that TV was in black and white in those days, and they were dumb-founded. So I showed them clips of the famous Charlie Chaplin and explained why they had no audio, that they were called Silent-films, etc etc. I was so surprised, as my little Maori and Pasifika children in the middle of Panmure were cracking up at Charlie Chaplin getting stuck in a lions cage. 
At this point, I was dumbfounded. 
The kids spent the next 20 minutes independently researching, watching and laughing at silent films. WHAT? 

They were so into the topic and it made my heart soar. 
If a non-fiction text about a law change in 1939 could bring about all that, this term is going to go well. 

On Tuesday, I gave my kids a massive stack of non-fiction books I had gotten from our school library. Now for context, my kids really struggle with non-fiction texts, especially the lower-ability ones. 
I chose actual physical books on purpose, as I wanted them to see that they aren't scary, that they can read them and learn from them. (The internet isn't the only way to research). 

My instruction to them was pretty much - pick a book, read it, find something interesting and record it on the brainstorm. (We had a brainstorm for each civilisation). 
They literally filled them. 

One kid even said to me 'Miss this is so interesting can we keep doing this' as she left for morning tea. I almost cried. 

In the afternoon they chose a civilisation they were interested in, and began researching it in depth (and were allowed to use the internet if they wanted). 
Nobody fought. They were pretty even groups. I didn't have to force anyone to do Victorian England. They wanted to, they chose. 

That afternoon I had the BEST conversations with my kids. 

'Miss, why are they putting leeches on him?' - Victorian Era group
'Miss, what are the things in the containers by the mummies feet?' - Egyptian group
'Miss, why did Queen Victoria marry her cousin, thats gross' - Victorian Era group
'Miss, did they really worship cats?' - Egyptian group
'Miss, where is Greece?' - Ancient Greece group
'Miss, what does Scandinavia mean?' - Vikings group
'Miss, whats the difference between a country and a continent'? - multiple groups
'Miss, why did they bury stuff with the dead body?' - Egyptian group
'Miss, why didn't woman have the same rights as men?' - Roman Empire group
'Miss, what's a cock and why is it fighting?' - Victorian Era group


Today they continued working on their research. 
I noticed that throughout the hour, more and more of the library books got pulled out of the shelf and were being used to research from. It became a preference for them.. to read a real physical book, rather than use the internet. 
The rebirth of non-fiction books in my classroom. 

They even came and asked to read those instead of fiction for buddy reading time.
What is happening! 

I asked them today to go and comment on our class blog, but their comment had to be something they had learnt from that lesson. 
If you have a minute, read through the comments and see how much the kids learnt in a day. 
Again, I almost cried.

I am so happy with how the first few days of school have gone. I feel that launching this inquiry has gone very well as the kids are so excited about their learning, asking quality questions and starting deep discussions. 

Friday, 21 July 2017

Response: Schools let students take laptops home in hopes of curbing summer slide

I recently read an article called Schools Let Students Take Laptops Home In Hopes Of Curbing 'Summer Slide' which was published in June 2017.

This particular article is based in America, however discusses a global issue; the summer slide.
In Manaiakalani schools, this is often called the 'summer drop off'. For non-teaching friends, this refers to the loss of learning children experience over summer when they are not attending school everyday. This caught my attention as in my recent data analysis, most of my students hadn't moved between Term 4 last year and Term 2 this year. In fact, they had fallen very far down, and I had spent two terms pulling them back to where they were. Good ole' summer slide.
It's very difficult, and incredibly frustrating.

From this article I pulled a few key quotes -


"But, there is no research yet to show whether device distribution cuts back on summer slide, the learning losses most acutely experienced by lower income students during the summer when lessons from the school year are forgotten."
My response: Well actually, there is some data. Manaiakalani has implemented a programme called the Summer Learning Journey which aims to reduce the summer slide/drop off by giving students learning to do over the summer break and encouraging them to blog about it as well. Their results are publicly available here.

"I think we tend to have this idyllic view of what childhood summers are, but the reality is that for kids living in poverty, summer can be a time of isolation and hunger."
"Parents in low-income neighbourhoods want to learn along with their children and are interested in being part of the digital age," she said. "Kids shouldn't just be given the equipment and told 'go.' They should be given content recommendations along with that."Overall thoughts - I am excited to get discussions underway for how my school and I can make it work, so year 5/6 students have the opportunity to take their netbooks home and participate in the learning journeys. My principal has already brainstormed some ideas about how we can make this happen and I am so on board.

My response: The first week back at school and the usual 'what did you do in the holidays?' is a very quick conversation in my class. A typical response is "nothing miss". Some students do not leave the neighbourhood, most do not leave East Auckland altogether. Parents are working, so often my students stay at home with an aunt, older sibling or grandparent. They report back on what movies they watched on TV and how they came to the school playground to play (our grounds are open). It makes me so sad. During the holidays, I often think of some of my students in particular (very few, but they are there) and genuinely wonder if they have been fed today, whose house they are at and if anybody is taking care of them. Poverty is hard. 
I often have students say they don't want to go on summer holidays because home is boring. School at least has friends, if not the learning bit. 

My response: Absolutely. When parents come in for Whanau Conferences, they want to know what they kids are doing online and learning to do. They want to be involved and learn alongside their child. That's one thing I like about the Summer Learning Journey, is that the parents can get involved and the tasks can be done together. 

I really want my students to get involved with the Summer Learning Journey this year, so next year their teacher doesn't spend half their year scraping back the learning they have already done. There is a Winter Learning Journey as well, for the Term 2/3 holidays. 
Currently, my students are not allowed to take their netbooks home as they are only year 5 and 6. 

Friday, 7 July 2017

Term 2 2017 student feedback

At the end of every term, I ask students to fill out a Google Form to help them (and me) reflect on the Term. 

I genuinely take their feedback into consideration and try to better myself as a teacher. 
Here are some gems/things to think about that I want to remember from this terms responses.

Did you have fun this term? How? When?

  • Yes when we made sushi we were all helping each other
  • It was cool cause we made stuff 
  • Yes because during learning we also get to have fun together as a class and mostly sometimes outside and inside
  • Yes I did. I had fun when we went to the tip top factory in week 7. I was able to spend time with my classmates and other students in other classes.
  • I have had fun every time I come to school.
  • i had fun when we were making sushi and it was fun because we were all doing something new because most of us have not made sushi before.

What was one thing Miss Ashley was good at this term?

  • Miss Ashley was good when it was my first day of school (written by a new student)
  • Helping us when we are angry or something else
  • Getting us prepared with work and challenging us
  • Miss Ashley is good at including other people's ideas and their cultures.
  • The most thing that miss ashley was so good was teaching us new strategies like algorithm and when coach us in our sport tournaments and how she encouraged us to never give us up.
  • She was good at making everything fun because if we were stuck she would give us cool examples and she would always let us use a cool for writing like a debate.
  • She listens to us
  • Miss Ashley was good at this term was maths.

What was one thing Miss Ashley could be better at next term?

  • Getting us more prepared for everything we learn
  • She could be better at listening sometimes.
  • What Miss Ashley can do better next term is to like make our work so challenging for us.

I also loved how many of my students were able to accurately say what they learnt in reading, writing and maths. A lot of our inquiry was mentioned as well (anything healthy/cooking/sushi related). I didn't prompt them at all to remember what they had learnt, so I was really proud they actually did remember by themselves. Hopefully that means it was absorbed deep down!

Personal reflection on this term and things to think about for next term -
This term I really pushed writing and think I did well in that learning area. We covered a lot of measurement stuff which the students were interested in and remembered. They weren't that into the whole-class read aloud, so I will think about how I can make this better/different for them...
I want to be respected, not feared, and so far this has worked for me. The one time students have taken their freedom to far, I addressed in (not even yelling!) and they stopped. I believe in being honest as possible and informing students as much as possible. Towards the end of the term I made a schedule to inform students of everything that was coming up (and to help me keep track!) and they LOVED IT. Definitely will be doing that again.
I think next term I may have to be more strict on students who do not complete their work to the expected standard, and will talk to the students about this and we can agree on a consequence (etc) together. This is something I felt I was too easy on and they can't get in the habit of not finishing stuff before heading into senior primary.
I want to do some kind of study on emotions/human nature to help my students better understand how each other are feeling and so they can empathise and help each other better. Needs to link to Mauri Ora Mana Potential Model..

I had a lot of fun this term. It was hard, stressful, something always happening (as usual) but it was great!

Friday, 30 June 2017

Term 1 & 2 target group/shift

For Term 1 and 2, our school inquiry focus was on Maori students maths.

As it is the end of term, and we have submitted our OTJs for June, we have to do our data discussions about the mid-year data.

A huge achievement has been the shift my target and priority students have been able to make in 2 terms. 

How to read the graph below: E5/E6 in the first box shows she was E5 in Term 1 and E6 in Term 2. If there is only one number, there was no change.

GLOSS overall
No shift.
Small shift.
Small shift.

My June data was also awesome. 

Year 5's


BL3Auckland, Merielle, Joshua, Hiria, Syraiah-Lee, Falakika, 654.55%Auckland, Merielle, Hiria, Syraiah-Lee, Falakika, Ariki654.55%Auckland, Merielle, Joshua, Falakika, Ariki545.45%
ATL2 Lopiseni, Stanley, Sosaia, Ariki436.36%Lopiseni, Stanley, Sosaia, 327.27%Hiria19.09%
BL2Joshua19.09%Syraiah-Lee, Stanley, Sosaia327.27%
9.09%Kordell19.09%Kordell, Lopiseni218.18%

Year 6's


BL4Lydia112.50%Lydia, Hevani, Edith, Grace450.00%Lydia112.50%
ATL3Hevani, Coralee, Edith, Amon, Grace562.50%Coralee112.50%Edith, Grace225.00%
BL3Viliami112.50%Amon112.50%Hevani, Coralee, Amon337.50%
ATL2 Viliami112.50%Suave112.50%
Looking forward...